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FODMAPS

FODMAPS

What are FODMAPs?

FODMAPs are a group of small carbohydrate (sugar) molecules found in everyday foods. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and provide an important source of energy for the body. FODMAPs are carbohydrates that may be poorly absorbed in the small intestine of some people. FODMAPs move through the digestive tract to the large intestine (colon), where they can draw water into the colon and are rapidly fermented (digested) by naturally-occurring gut bacteria. The fermentation of FODMAPs produces gas and other by-products.

What is Fermentation?

Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, and/or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation is also used more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium, often with the goal of producing a specific chemical product. More specifically, it can refer to the use of yeast to change sugar into alcohol or the use of bacteria to create lactic acid in certain foods.

F Fermentable: Fermentable carbohydrates are sugars that are broken down and digested by bacteria in our intestines, producing gas and other by-products.

Oligosaccharides: Oligosaccharides are short chains of carbohydrate molecules linked together. • Fructans (a chain of fructose molecules) and galacto-oligosaccharides (a chain of galactose molecules) are oligosaccharides that humans cannot break down and properly absorb in the small intestine.

Disaccharides: Disaccharides are two carbohydrate molecules linked together. • Lactose, the sugar found in milk and dairy products, is a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose. Lactose must be broken down by the digestive enzyme lactase before it can be absorbed in the small intestine. In people with lactose intolerance, the level of lactase enzyme is insufficient to properly digest lactose and lactose travels to the colon where fermentation occurs.

Monosaccharides: Monosaccharides are single carbohydrate molecules. • Fructose, the sugar found in many fruits and some vegetables, is a monosaccharide and does not require any digestion before it is absorbed. When foods containing equal amounts of fructose and glucose are eaten, glucose helps fructose to be completely absorbed. However, when fructose is present in greater quantities than glucose, fructose absorption depends upon the activity of sugar transporters located in the intestinal wall. The ability to absorb excess fructose varies from person to person. In people with fructose malabsorption, the capacity of sugar transporters is limited and excess fructose travels to the colon where fermentation occurs.

Polyols: Polyols, or sugar alcohols, are a type of carbohydrate that humans can only partially digest and absorb in the small intestine. • Polyols, such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, maltitol and isomalt, mimic the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar), however, because their absorption is much slower, only a small amount of what is eaten is actually absorbed. Polyols are often used as low-calorie sweeteners in sugar-free and diet products.

How do FODMAPs affect people with digestive disorders?

Although FODMAPs are not the cause of digestive disorders such as IBS, they can trigger gastrointestinal symptoms. When FODMPAPs reach the colon, they draw fluid into the bowel and bacteria ferment the FODMAP molecules to produce hydrogen and methane gases. The liquid and gas distend (stretch) the intestine and signal nerves surrounding the digestive organs. For many people with IBS, the nerves of the gut are unusually sensitive and even a small change in the intestinal volume can cause the nerve network to overreact and trigger IBS symptoms.

High FODMAP food (things to avoid / reduce)
Vegetables and Legumes
• Garlic – avoid entirely if possible
• Onions – avoid entirely if possible
• Artichoke
• Asparagus
• Baked beans
• Beetroot
• Black eyed peas
• Broad beans
• Butter beans
• Cauliflower
• Celery – greater than 5cm of stalk
• Kidney beans
• Leeks
• Mange Tout
• Mushrooms
• Peas
• Savoy Cabbage
• Soy beans
• Split peas
• Scallions / spring onions (bulb / white part)
• Shallots

Fruit – fruits can contain high fructose
• Apples
• Apricots
• Avocado
• Blackberries
• Cherries
• Currants
• Dates
• Feijoa
• Grapefruit
• Lychee
• Mango
• Nectarines
• Peaches
• Pears
• Persimmon
• Plums
• Pomegranate
• Prunes
• Raisins
• Tinned fruit in apple / pear juice
• Watermelon

Meats, Poultry and Meat Substitutes
• Prosciutto
• Chorizo
• Sausages
• Processed meat

Cereals, Grains, Breads, Biscuits, Pasta, Nuts and Cakes
• Wheat containing products such (be sure to check labels):
• Biscuits
• Breadcrumbs
• Cashews
• Cakes
• Croissants
• Crumpets
• Egg noodles
• Muffins
• Regular noodles
• Pastries
• Pasta made from wheat
• Sourdough
• Udon noodles
• Wheat bread
• Wheat cereals
• Wheat flour
• Wheat rolls
• Wheatgerm
• Barley
• Bran cereals
• Couscous
• Gnocchi
• Muesli
• Pistachios
• Rye
• Semolina

Condiments, Sweets, Sweeteners and Spreads
• Agavae
• Fructose
• Gravy, if it contains onion
• High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
• Honey
• Milk chocolate
• Relish
• Stock cubes
• Sugar free sweets containing polyols – usually ending in -ol or isomalt
• Inulin
• Isomalt
• Maltitol
• Mannitol
• Sorbitol
• Xylitol

Prebiotic Foods
• The follow items can be added to yoghurts, snack bars etc:
• FOS – fructooligosaccharides
• Inulin
• Oligofructose

Drinks
• Beer – if drinking more than one bottle
• Dandelion tea
• Fruit and herbal teas with apple added
• Fruit juices in large quantities
• Fruit juices made of apple, pear, mango
• Orange juice in quantities over 100ml
• Rum
• Sodas containing High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)
• Soy milk made with soy beans – commonly found in USA
• Sports drinks
• Tea, fennel
• Tea, chamomile
• Tea, oolong
• Wine – if drinking more than one glass

Dairy Foods
• Buttermilk
• Cream cheese
• Cream
• Custard
• Ice cream
• Milk – cow, goat and sheep
• Sour cream
• Yoghurt – including greek yogurt

Low FODMAP food (good to eat food)
If quantities are given these are the highest amount allowed
Vegetables and Legumes
• Alfalfa
• Bamboo shoots
• Bean sprouts
• Bok choy / pak choi
• Broccoli – avoid large servings
• Brussel sprouts – 1 serving of 2 sprouts
• Butternut squash – 1/4 cup
• Cabbage – 1 serving of 1 cup
• Carrots
• Celery – less than 5cm of stalk
• Collard greens
• Corn / sweet corn- if tolerable and only in small amounts – 1/2 cob
• Courgette
• Chick peas – 1/4 cup
• Chilli – if tolerable
• Chives
• Cucumber
• Eggplant / aubergine
• Fennel
• Green beans
• Green pepper (green bell pepper)
• Ginger
• Kale
• Leek leaves
• Lentils – in small amounts
• Lettuce
• Marrow
• Okra
• Olives
• Parsnip
• Radish
• Red peppers (red bell pepper)
• Potato
• Pumpkin
• Pumpkin, canned – 1/4 cup, 2.2 oz
• Scallions / spring onions (green part)
• Silverbeet / chard
• Spinach, baby
• Squash
• Swede
• Sweet potato – 1/2 cup
• Tomato – avoid cherry tomato
• Turnip
• Yam
• Zucchini

Fruit
• Bananas
• Blueberries
• Boysenberry
• Cantaloupe
• Cranberry
• Clementine
• Dragonfruit
• Grapes
• Honeydew and Galia melons
• Kiwifruit
• Lemon including lemon juice
• Lime
• Mandarin
• Orange
• Passion fruit
• Paw paw
• Papaya
• Pineapple
• Raspberry
• Rhubarb
• Strawberry
• Tangelo

Meats, Poultry and Meat Substitutes
• Chicken
• Beef
• Lamb
• Pork
• Quorn, mince
• Turkey
• Cold cuts / deli meat / cold meats such as ham and turkey breast

Fish and Seafood
• Canned tuna
• Fresh fish e.g.
o Salmon
o Cod
o Haddock
o Plaice
o Trout
• Seafood (ensuring nothing else is added) e.g.
o Crab
o Lobster
o Shrimp
o Mussels
o Oysters

Cereals, Grains, Breads, Biscuits, Pasta, Nuts and Cakes
• Wheat free or gluten free breads
• Bread made from oats, rice, corn, and potato flours
• Wheat free or gluten free pasta
• Buckwheat noodles
• Rice noodles
• Porridge and oat based cereals
• Cornflakes – 1/2 cup
• Rice bran
• Rice Krispies
• Almonds – max of 15
• Amaranth
• Brazil nuts
• Bulgur / bourghal – 1/4 cup cooked, 44g serving
• Buckwheat
• Buckwheat flour
• Brown rice / whole grain rice
• Cornflour / maize
• Crispbread
• Corncakes
• Coconut – milk, cream, flesh
• Corn tortillas, 3 tortillas
• Hazelnuts – max of 15
• Macadamia – max of 10
• Millet
• Oats
• Oatcakes
• Peanuts
• Pecans – max of 15
• Pine nuts – max of 15
• Polenta
• Popcorn
• Potato chips, plain
• Potato flour
• Pumpkin seeds – max of 1 – 2 tbsp
• Quinoa
• Rice cakes
• Rice crackers
• Rice flour
• Sesame seeds – max of 1 – 2 tbsp
• Spelt
• Sunflower seeds – max of 1 – 2 tbsp
• Sorgum
• Tortilla chips
• Walnuts – max of 10
• White rice

Condiments, Sweets, Sweeteners and Spreads

  • Aspartame
  • Acesulfame K
  • Barbecue sauce
  • Chocolate, dark
  • Chutney, 1 tablespoon
  • Fish sauce
  • Garlic infused oil
  • Golden syrup
  • Glucose
  • Jam / jelly, strawberry
  • Ketchup (USA) – 1 sachet
  • Maple syrup
  • Marmalade
  • Mayonnaise – ensuring no garlic or onion in ingredients
  • Mustard
  • Olive oil
  • Oyster sauce
  • Pesto sauce – less than 1 tbsp
  • Peanut butter
  • Saccharine
  • Soy sauce
  • Sweet and sour sauce
  • Sucralose
  • Sugar – also called sucrose
  • Tomato sauce (outside USA) – 2 sachets, 13g
  • Vegemite
  • Vinegar, balsamic – less than 2 tbsp
  • Vinegar, rice wine
  • Worcestershire sauce

Drinks

  • Alcohol – is an irritant to the gut, limited intake advised:
  • Beer – limited to one drink
  • Clear spirits such as Vodka
  • Gin
  • Whiskey
  • Wine – limited to one drink
  • Coffee, espresso, regular or decaffeinated, black
  • Coffee, espresso, regular or decaffeinated, with up to 250ml lactose free milk
  • Coffee, instant, regular or decaffeinated, black
  • Coffee, instant, regular or decaffeinated, with up to 250ml lactose free milk
  • Espresso, regular, black
  • Fruit juice, 125ml and safe fruits only
  • Lemonade – in low quantities
  • Soya milk made with soy protein
  • Sugar free fizzy drinks / soft drinks / soda – such as diet coke, in low quantities as aspartame and acesulfame k can be irritants
  • ‘Sugar’ fizzy drinks / soft drinks / soda that do no contain HFCS such as lemonade, cola. Limit intake due to these drinks being generally unhealthy and can cause gut irritation
  • Tea, black, weak e.g. PG Tips
  • Tea, chai, weak
  • Tea, fruit and herbal, weak – ensure no apple added
  • Tea, green
  • Tea, peppermint
  • Tea, white
  • Water

Dairy Foods and Eggs

  • Butter
  • Cheese, brie
  • Cheese, camembert
  • Cheese, cheddar
  • Cheese, cottage
  • Cheese, feta
  • Cheese, mozzarella
  • Cheese, ricotta – 2 tablespoons
  • Cheese, swiss
  • Dairy free chocolate pudding
  • Eggs
  • Gelato
  • Lactose free milk
  • Lactose free yoghurt
  • Margarine
  • Oat milk
  • Parmesan cheese
  • Rice milk
  • Sorbet
  • Soy protein (avoid soya beans)
  • Swiss cheese
  • Tempeh
  • Tofu
  • Whipped cream

Cooking ingredients, Herbs and Spices

  • Herbs: Basil, Cilantro, Coriander, Mint, Oregano, Parsley, Rosemary, Tarragon, Thyme
  • Spices: All spice, Cinnamon, Cumin, Five spice, Paprika, Turmeric
  • Baking powder
  • Baking soda
  • Cocoa powder
  • Cream, 1/2 cup
  • Gelatine
  • Ghee
  • Icing sugar
  • Lard
  • Salt
  • Vegetable oil

http://www.ibsdiets.org/fodmap-diet/fodmap-food-list/

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