Mitochondria provide the energy a cell needs to move, divide, produce secretory products, contract – in short, they are the power centers of the cell. They are about the size of bacteria but may have different shapes depending on the cell type.
Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles, and like the nucleus have a double membrane. The outer membrane is fairly smooth. But the inner membrane is highly convoluted, forming folds called cristae. The cristae greatly increase the inner membrane’s surface area. It is on these cristae that food (sugar) is combined with oxygen to produce ATP – the primary energy source for the cell.