The most common thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Insufficient hormone production leads to hypothyroidism. Although the effects can be unpleasant or uncomfortable, most thyroid problems can be managed well if properly diagnosed and treated. The butterfly-shaped thyroid gland sits at the base of the neck just below the larynx and cranks out the hormones responsible for the body’s metabolism.